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by J.S. Le Fanu

from Through a glass darkly (1872, 1929 ed.)
(London: Peter Davies, 1929), pp. 3-45

Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873)

_In a Glass Darkly_ was first published in three volumes in 1872; the
several tales having previously appeared in various periodicals.  The
present edition was published in November, 1929.

Printed in Great Britain for Peter Davies Ltd. by W. Lewis, M.A. at the
Cambridge University Press.


Though carefully educated in medicine and surgery, I have never
practised either.  The study of each continues, nevertheless, to interest me
profoundly.  Neither idleness nor caprice caused my seccession from the
honourable calling which I had just entered.  The cause was a very trifling
scratch inflicted by a dissecting knife.  This trifle cost me the loss of
two fingers, amputated promptly, and the more painful loss of my health, for
I have never been quite well since, and have seldom been twelve months
together in the same place.

     In my wanderings I became acquainted with Dr Martin Hesselius, a
wanderer like myself, like me a physician, and like me an enthusiast in his
profession.  Unlike me in this, that his wanderings were voluntary, and he a
man, if not of fortune, as we estimate fortune in England, at least in what
our forefathers used to term "easy circumstances."  He was an old man when I
first saw him; nearly five-and-thirty years my senior.

     In Dr. Martin Hesselius I found my master.  His knowledge was immense,
his grasp of a case was an intuition.  He was the very man to inspire a
young enthusiast like me with awe and delight.  My admiration has stood the
test of time and survived the separation of death.  I am sure it was

     For nearly twenty years I acted as his medical secretary.  His immense
collection of papers he has left in my care, to be arranged, indexed and
bound.  His treatment of some of these cases is curious.  He writes in two
distinct characters.  He describes what he saw and heard as an intelligent
layman might; and when in this style of narrative he had seen the patient
either through his own hall-door to the light of day, or through the gates
of darkness to the caverns of the dead, he returns upon the narrative, and
in the terms of his art, and with all the force and originality of genius,
proceeds to the work of analysis, diagnosis and illustration.

     Here and there a case strikes me as of a kind to amuse or horrify a lay
reader with an interest quite different from the peculiar one which it may
possess for an expert.  With slight modifications, chiefly of language, and
of course a change of names, I copy the following.  The narrator is Dr
Martin Hesselius.  I find it among the voluminous notes of cases which me
made during a tour in England about sixty-four years ago.

     It is related to a series of letters to his friend Professor Van Loo of
Leyden.  The professor was not a physician, but a chemist, and a man who
read history and metaphysics and medicine, and had, in his day, written a play.

     The narrative is therefore, if somewhat less valuable as a medical
record, necessarily written in a manner more likely to interest an unlearned

     These letters, from a memorandum attached, appear to have been
returned, on the death of the professor in 1819, to Dr Hesselius.  They are
written, some in English, some in French, but the greater part in German.  I
am a faithful, though I am conscious by no means a graceful translator, and
although here and there I omit some passages, and shorten others, and
disguise names, I have interpolated nothing. 


The Rev. Mr Jennings is tall and thin.  He is middle-aged, and dresses with
a natty, old-fashioned high-church precision.  He is naturally a little
stately, but not at all stiff.  His features, without being handsome, are
well formed, and their expression extremely kind, but also shy.

     I met him one evening at Lady Mary Heyduke's.  The modesty and
benevolence of his countenance are extremely prepossessing.

     We were but a small party, and he joined agreeably enough in the
conversation.  He seems to enjoy listening very much more than contributing
to the talk; but what he says is always to the purpose and well said.  He is
a great favourite of Lady Mary's, who it seems, consults him upon many
things, and thinks him the most happy and blessed person on earch.  Little
knows she about him.

     The Rev. Mr Jennings is a bachelor, and has, they say, sixty thousand
pounds in the funds.  He is a charitable man.  He is most anxious to be
actively employed in his sacred profession, and yet, though always tolerably
well elsewhere, when he goes down to his vicarage in Warwickshire, to engage
in the actual duties of his sacred calling, his health soon fails him, and
in a very strange way.  So says Lady Mary.

     There is no doubt that Mr Jennings' health does break down in generally
a sudden and mysterious way, sometimes in the very act of officiating in his
old and pretty church at Kenlis.  It may be his heart, it may be his brain.
But so it has happened, three or four times or oftener, that after
proceeding a certain way in the service, he has on a sudden stopped short;
and after a silence, apparently quite unable to resume, he has fallen into
solitary, inaudible prayer, his hands and his eyes uplifted, and then pale
as death, and in the agitation of a strange shame and horror, descended
trembling, and got into the vestry-room, leaving his congregation, without
explanation, to themselves.  This occurred when his curate was absent.  When
he goes down to Kenlis now, he always takes care to provide a clergyman to
share his duty, and to supply his place on the instant should he become thus
suddenly incapacitated.

     When Mr Jennings breaks down quite, and beats a retreat from the
vicarage, and returns to London--where, in a dark street off Piccadilly, he
inhabits a very narrow house--Lady Mary says that he is always perfectly
well.  I have my own opinion about that.  There are degrees, of course.  We
shall see.

     Mr Jennings is a perfectly gentlemanlike man.  People, however, remark
something odd.  There is an impression a little ambiguous.  One thing which
certainly contributes to it, people I think don't remember or, perhaps,
distinctly remark.  But I did, almost immediately.  Mr Jennings has a way of
looking sidelong upon the carpet, as if his eye followed the movements of
something there.  This, of course, is not always.  It occurs only now and
then.  But often enough to give a certain oddity, as I have said, to his
manner, and in this glance travelling along the floor there is something
both shy and anxious.

     A medical philosopher, as you are good enough to call me, elaborating
theories by the aid of cases sought out by himself and by him watched and
scrutinized with more time at command, and consequently infinitely more
minuteness than the ordinary practitioner can afford, falls insensibly into
habits of observation, which accompany him everywhere, and are exercised, as
some people would say, impertinently, upon every subject that presents
itself with the least likelihood of rewarding inquiry.

     There was a promise of this kind in the slight, timid, kindly, but
reserved gentleman, whom I met for the first time at this agreeable little
evening gathering.  I observed, of course, more than I here set down; but I
reserve all that borders on the technical for a strictly scientific paper.

     I may remark that when I here speak of medical science, I do so, as I
hope some day to see it more generally understood, in a much more
comprehensive sense than its generally material treatment would warrant.  I
believe the entire natural world is but the ultimate expression of that
spiritual world from which, and in which alone, it has its life.  I believe
that the essential man is a spirit, that the spirit is an organised
substance, but as different in point of material from what we ordinarily
understand by matter, as light or electricity is; that the material body is,
in the most literal sense, a vesture, and death consequently no interruption
of the living man's existence, but simply his extrication from the natural
body--a process which commences at the moment of what we term death, and the
completion of which, at furthest a few days later, is the resurrection "in

     The person who weighs the consequences of these positions will probably
see their practical bearing upon medical science.  This is, however, by no
means the proper place for displaying the proofs and discussing the
consequences of this too generally unrecognized state of facts.

     In pursuance of my habit, I was covertly observing Mr Jennings with all
my caution--I think he perceived it--and I saw plainly that he was as
cautiously observing me.  Lady Mary happening to address me by name, as Dr
Hesselius, I saw that he glanced at me more sharply, and then became
thoughtful for a few minutes.

     After this, as I conversed with a gentleman at the other end of the
room, I saw him look at me more steadily, and with an interest which I
thought I understood.  I then saw him take an opportunity of chatting with
Lady Mary, and was, as one always is, perfectly aware of being the subject
of a distant inquiry and answer.

     This tall clergyman approached me by-and-by; and in a little time we
had got into conversation.  When two people who like reading, and know books
and places, having travelled, wish to discourse, it is very strange if they
can't find topics.  It was not accident that brought him near me, and led
him into conversation.  He knew German, and had read my Essays on
Metaphysical Medicine, which suggest more than they actually say.

     This courteous man, gentle, shy, plainly a man of thought and reading,
who, moving and talking among us, was not altogether of us, and whom I
already suspected of leading a life whose transactions and alarms were
carefully concealed, with an impenetrable reserve from, not only the world,
but his best beloved friends--was cautiously weighing in his own mind the
idea of taking a certain step with regard to me.

     I penetrated his thoughts without his being aware of it, and was
careful to say nothing which could betray to his sensitive vigilance my
suspicions respecting his position, or my surmises about his plans
respecting myself.

     We chatted upon different subjects for a time, but at last he said:

     "I was very much interested by some papers of yours, Dr Hesselius, upon
what you term Metaphysical Medicine--I read them in German, ten or twelve
years ago--have they been translated?"

     "No, I'm sure they have not--I should have heard.  They would have
asked my leave, I think."

     "I asked the publishers here, a few months ago, to get the book for me
in the original German; but they tell me it is out of print."

     "So it is, and has been for some years; but it flatters me as an author
to find that you have not forgotten my little book, although," I added
laughing, "ten or twelve years is a considerable time to have managed
without it; but I suppose you have been turning the subject over again in
your mind, or something has happened lately to revive your interest in it."

     At this remark, accompanied by a glance of inquiry, a sudden
embarrassment disturbed Mr Jennings, analogous to that which makes a young
lady blush and look foolish.  He dropped his eyes, and folded his hands
together uneasily, and looked oddly, and you would have said guiltily, for a

     I helped him out of his awkwardness in the best way, by appearing not
to observe it; and going straight on, I said:  "Those revivals of interest
in a subject happen to me often; one book suggests another, and often sends
me back a wild-goose chase over an interval of twenty years.  But if you
still care to possess a copy, I shall be only too happy to provide you; I
have still got two or three by me--and if you allow me to present one I
shall be very much honoured."

     "You are very good indeed," he said, quite at his ease again, in a
moment:  "I almost despaired--I don't know how to thank you."

     "Pray don't say a word; the thing is really so little worth that I am
only ashamed of having offered it, and if you thank me any more I shall
throw it into the fire in a fit of modesty."

     Mr Jennings laughed.  He inquired where I was staying in London, and
after a little more conversation on a variety of subjects he took his departure.


"I like you vicar so much, Lady Mary," said I, as soon as he was gone.  "He
has read, travelled, and thought, and having also suffered, he ought to be
an accomplished companion."

     "So he is, and, better still, he is a really good man," said she.  "His
advice is invaluable about my schools, and all my little undertakings at
Dawlbridge, and he's so painstaking, he takes so much trouble--you have no
idea--wherever he thinks he can be of use; he's so good-natured and so

     "It is pleasant to hear so good an account of his neighbourly virtues.
I can only testify to his being an agreeable and gentle companion, and in
addition to what you have told me, I think I can tell you two or three
things about him," said I.


     "Yes, to begin with, he's unmarried."

     "Yes, that's right--go on."

     "He has been writing, that is he *was*; but for two or three years,
perhaps, he has not gone on with his work; and the book was upon some rather
abstract subject--perhaps theology."

     "Well, he was writing a book, as you say; I'm not quite sure what it
was about, but only that it was nothing that I cared for; very likely you
are right, and he certainly did stop--yes."

     "And although he only drank a little coffee here to-night, he likes
tea, at least did like it, extravagantly."

     "Yes, that's *quite* true."

     "He drank green tea a good deal, didn't he?" I pursued.

     "Well, that's very odd!  Green tea was a subject on which we used
almost to quarrel."

     "But he has quite given that up," said I.

     "So he has."

     "And, now, one more fact.  His mother or his father, did you know them?"

     "Yes, both; his father is only ten years dead, and their place is near
Dawlbridge.  We knew them very well," she answered.

     "Well, either his mother or his father--I should rather think his
father, saw a ghost," said I.

     "Well, you really are a conjurer, Dr Hesselius."

     "Conjurer or no, haven't I said right?" I answered merrily.

     "You certainly have, and it *was* his father:  he was a silent,
whimsical man, and he used to bore my father about his dreams, and at last
he told him a story about a ghost he had seen and talked with; and a very
odd story it was.  I remember it particularly, because I was so afraid of
him.  This story was long before he died--when I was quite a child--and his
ways were so silent and moping, and he used to drop in sometimes, in the
dusk, when I was alone in the drawing-room, and I used to fancy there were
ghosts about him."

     I smiled and nodded.

     "And now, having established my character as a conjurer, I think I must
say good-night," said I.

     "But how *did* you find it out?"

     "By the planets, of course, as the gipsies do," I answered, and so,
gaily, we said good-night.

     Next morning I sent the little book he had been inquiring after, and a
note, to Mr Jennings, and on returning late that evening, I found that he
had called at my lodgings and left his card.  He asked whether I was at
home, and asked at what hour he would be most likely to find me.

     Does he intend opening his case, and consulting me "professionally," as
they say?  I hope so.  I have already conceived a theory about him.  It is
supported by Lady Mary's answers to my parting questions.  I should like
much to ascertain from his own lips.  But what can I do consistently with
good breeding to invite a confession?  Nothing.  I rather think he meditates
one.  At all events, my dear Van L., I shan't make myself difficult of
access; I mean to return his visit to-morrow.  It will be only civil, in
return for his politeness, to ask to see him.  Perhaps something may come of
it.  Whether much, little, or nothing, my deal Van L., you shall hear.


Well, I have called at Blank Street.

     On inquiring at the door, the servant told me that Mr Jennings was
engaged very particularly with a gentleman, a clergyman from Kenlis, his
parish in the country.  Intending to reserve my privilege, and to call
again, I merely intimated that I should try another time, and had turned to
go, when the servant begged my pardon, and asked me, looking at me a little
more attentively than well-bred persons of his order usually do, whether I
was Dr Hesselius; and, on learning that I was, he said, "Perhaps then, sir,
you would allow me to mention it to Mr Jennings, for I am sure he wishes to
see you."

     The servant returned in a moment, with a message from Mr Jennings
asking me to go into his study, which was in effect his back drawing-room,
promising to be with me in a very few minutes.

     This was really a study--almost a library.  The room was lofty, with
two tall slender windows, and rich dark curtains.  It was much larger than I
had expected, and stored with books on every side, from the floor to the
ceiling.  The upper carpet--for to my tread it felt that there were two or
three--was a Turkey carpet.  My steps fell noiselessly.  The book-cases
standing out, placed the windows, particularly narrow ones, in deep
recesses.  The effect of the room was, although extremely comfortable, and
even luxurious, decidedly gloomy and, aided by the silence, almost
oppressive.  Perhaps, however, I ought to have allowed something for
association.  My mind had connected peculiar ideas with Mr Jennings.  I
stepped into this perfectly silent room, of a very silent house, with a
peculiar foreboding; and its darkness and solemn clothing of books--for
except where two narrow looking-glasses were set in the wall they were
everywhere--helped this sombre feeling.

     While awaiting Mr Jennings' arrival, I amused myself by looking into
some of the books with which his shelves were laden.  Not among these, but
immediately under them, with their backs upward, on the floor, I lighted
upon a complete set of Swedenborg's Arcana Caelestia, in the
original Latin, a very fine folio set, bound in the natty livery which
theology affects, pure vellum namely, gold letters, and carmine edges.
There were paper markers in several of these volumes; I raised and placed
them, one after another, upon the table, and opening where these papers were
placed, I read in the solemn Latin phraseology a series of sentences
indicated by a pencilled line at the margin.  Of these I copy here a few,
translating them into English:

     "When man's interior sight is opened, which is that of his spirit, then
there appear the things of another life, which cannot possibly be made
visible to the bodily sight...."

     "By the internal sight it has been granted to me to see the things that
are in the other life, more clearly than I see those that are in the world.
From these considerations it is evident that external vision exists from
interior vision, and this from a vision still more interior, and so on...."

     "There are with every man at least two evil spirits...."

     "With wicked genii there is also a fluent speech, but harsh and
grating.  There is also among them a speech which is not fluent, wherein the
dissent of the thoughts is perceived as something secretly creeping along
within it...."

     "The evil spirits associated with man are, indeed, from the hells, but
when with man they are not then in hell, but are taken out thence.  The
place where they then are is in the midst between heaven and hell, and is
called the world of spirits--when the evil spirits who are with man, are in
that world, they are not in any infernal torment, but in every thought and
affection of the man, and so, in all that the man himself enjoys.  But when
they are remitted into their hell, they return to their former state...."

     "If evil spirits could perceive that they were associated with man, and
yet that they were spirits separate from him, and if they could flow in into
the things of his body, they would attempt by a thousand means to destroy
him; for they hate man with a deadly hatred...."

     "Knowing, therefore, that I was a man in the body, they were
continually striving to destroy me, not as to the body only, but especially
as to the soul; for to destroy any man or spirit is the very delight of life
of all who are in hell; but I have been continually protected by the Lord.
Hence it appears how dangerous it is for man to be in a living consort with
spirits, unless he be in the good of faith...."

     "Nothing is more carefully guarded from the knowledge of associate
spirits than their being thus conjoint with a man, for if they knew it they
would speak to him, with the intention to destroy him...."

     "The delight of hell is to do evil to man, and to hasten his eternal

     A long note, written with a very sharp and fine pencil, in Mr Jennings'
neat hand, at the foot of the page, caught my eye.  Expecting his criticism
upon the text, I read a word or two, and stopped; for it was something quite
different, and began with these words, Deus misereatur
mei--"May God compassionate me."  Thus warned of its private nature,
I averted my eyes, and shut the book, replacing all the volumes as I had
found them, except one which interested me, and in which, as men studious
and solitary in their habits will do, I grew so absorbed as to take no
cognizance of the outer world, nor to remember where I was.

     I was reading some pages which refer to "representatives" and
"correspondents," in the technical language of Swedenborg, and had arrived
at a passage, the substance of which is that evil spirits, when seen by
other eyes than those of their infernal associates, present themselves, by
"correspondence," in the shape of the beast (*fera*) which represents their
particular lust and life, in aspect direful and atrocious.  This is a long
passage, and particularizes a number of those bestial forms.


I was running the head of my pencil-case along the line as I read it, and
something caused me to raise my eyes.

     Directly before me was one of the mirrors I have mentioned, in which I
saw reflected the tall shape of my friend Mr Jennings, leaning over my
shoulder, and reading the page at which I was busy, and with a face so dark
and wild that I should hardly have known him.

     I turned and rose.  He stood erect also, and with an effort laughed a
little, saying:

     "I came in and asked you how you did, but without succeeding in awaking
you from your book; so I could not restrain my curiosity, and very
impertinently, I'm afraid, peeped over your shoulder.  This is not your
first time of looking into those pages.  You have looked into Swedenborg, no
doubt, long ago?"

     "Oh dear, yes!  I owe Swedenborg a great deal; you will discover traces
of him in the little book on Metaphysical Medicine, which you
were so good to remember."

     Although my friend affected a gaiety of manner, there was a slight
flush in his face, and I could perceive that he was inwardly much perturbed.

     "I'm scarcely yet qualified, I know so little of Swedenborg.  I've only
had them a fortnight," he answered, "and I think they are rather likely to
make a solitary man nervous--that is, judging from the very little I have
read--I don't say that they have made me so," he laughed; "and I'm so very
much obliged for the book.  I hope you got my note?"

     I made all proper acknowledgements and modest disclaimers.

     "I never read a book that I go with, so entirely, as that of yours," he
continued.  "I saw at once there is more in it than is quite unfolded.  Do
you know Dr Harley?" he asked, rather abruptly.

     [In passing, the editor remarks that the physician here named was one
of the most eminent who had ever practised in England.]

     I did, having had letters to him, and had experienced from him great
courtesy and considerable assistance during my visit to England.

     "I think that man one of the very greatest fools I ever met in my
life," said Mr Jennings.

     This was the first time I had ever heard him say a sharp thing of
anybody, and such a term applied to so high a name a little startled me.

     "Really! and in what way?" I asked.

     "In his profession," he answered.

     I smiled.

     "I mean this," he said:  "he seems to me, one half, blind--I mean one
half of all he looks at is dark--preternaturally bright and vivid all the
rest; and the worst of it is, it seems *wilful*.  I can't get him--I mean he
won't--I've had some experience of him as a physician, but I look on him as,
in that sense, no better than a paralytic mind, an intellect half dead.
I'll tell you--I know I shall some time--all about it," he said, with a
little agitation.  "You stay some months longer in England.  If I should be
out of town during your stay for a little time, would you allow me to
trouble you with a letter?"

     "I should be only too happy," I assured him.

     "Very good of you.  I am so utterly dissatisfied with Harley."

     "A little leaning to the materialistic school," I said.

     "A *mere" materialist," he corrected me; "you can't think how that sort
of thing worries one who knows better.  You won't tell anyone--any of my
friends you know--that I am hippish; now, for instance, no one knows--not
even Lady Mary--that I have seen Dr Harley, or any other doctor.  So pray
don't mention it; and, if I should have any threatening of an attack, you'll
kindly let me write, or, should I be in town, have a little talk with you."

     I was full of conjecture, and unconsciously I found I had fixed my eyes
gravely on him, for he lowered his for a moment, and he said:

     "I see you think I might as well tell you now, or else you are forming
a conjecture; but you may as well give it up.  If you were guessing all the
rest of your life, you will never hit on it."

     He shook his head smiling, and over that wintry sunshine a black cloud
suddenly came down, and he drew his breath in through his teeth, as men do
in pain.

     "Sorry, of course, to learn that you apprehend occasion to consult any
of us; but command me when and how you like, and I need not assure you that
your confidence is sacred."

     He then talked of quite other things, and in a comparatively cheerful
way, and after a little time I took my leave.


We parted cheerfully, but he was not cheerful, nor was I.  There are certain
expressions of that powerful organ of spirit--the human face--which,
although I have seen them often, and possess a doctor's nerve, yet disturb
me profoundly.  One look of Mr Jennings haunted me.  It had seized my
imagination with so dismal a power that I changed my plans for the evening,
and went to the opera, feeling that I wanted a change of ideas.

     I heard nothing of or from him for two or three days, when a note in
his hand reached me.  It was cheerful, and full of hope.  He said that he
had been for some little time so much better--quite well, in fact--that he
was going to make a little experiment, and run down for a month or so to his
parish, to try whether a little work might not quite set him up.  There was
in it a fervent religious expression of gratitude for his restoration, as he
now almost hoped he might call it.

     A day or two later I saw Lady Mary, who repeated what his note had
announced, and told me that he was actually in Warwickshire, having resumed
his clerical duties at Kenlis; and she added, "I begin to think that he is
really perfectly well, and that there never was anything the matter, more
than nerves and fancy; we are all nervous, but I fancy there is nothing like
a little hard work for that kind of weakness, and he has made up his mind to
try it.  I should not be surprised if he did not come back for a year."

     Notwithstanding all this confidence, only two days later I had this
note, dated from his house off Piccadilly:

     "Dear Sir--I have returned disappointed.  If I should feel at all able
to see you, I shall write to ask you kindly to call.  At present I am too
low and, in fact, simply unable to say all I wish to say.  Pray don't
mention my name to my friends.  I can see no one.  By-and-by, please God,
you shall hear from me.  I mean to take a run into Shropshire, where some of
my people are.  God bless you!  May we, on my return, meet more happily than
I can now write."

     About a week after this I saw Lady Mary at her own house, the last
person, she said, left in town, and just on the wing for Brighton, for the
London season was quite over.  She told me that she had heard from Mr
Jennings' niece, Martha, in Shropshire.  There was nothing to be gathered
from her letter, more than that he was low and nervous.  In those words, of
which health people think so lightly, what a world of suffering is sometimes

     Nearly five weeks had passed without any further news of Mr Jennings.
At the end of that time I received a note from him.  He wrote:

     "I have been in the country, and have had change of air, change of
scene, change of faces, change of everything and in everything--but
*myself*.  I have made up my mind, so far as the most irresolute creature on
earth can do it, to tell my case fully to you.  If your engagements will
permit, pray come to me to-day, to-morrow, or the next day; but, pray defer
as little as possible.  You know not how much I need help.  I have a quiet
house at Richmond, where I now am.  Perhaps you can manage to come to
dinner, or to luncheon, or even to tea.  You shall have no trouble in
finding me out.  The servant at Blank Street, who takes this note, will have
a carriage at your door at any hour you please; and I am always to be found.
You will say that I ought not to be alone.  I have tried everything.  Come
and see."

     I called up the servant, and decided on going out the same evening,
which accordingly I did.

     He would have been much better in a lodging-house, or hotel, I thought,
as I drove up through a short double row of sombre elms to a very
old-fashioned brick house, darkened by the foliage of these trees, which
overtopped and nearly surrounded it.  It was a perverse choice, for nothing
could be imagined more triste and silent.  The house, I found, belonged to
him.  He had stayed for a day or two in town, and, finding it for some cause
insupportable, had come out here, probably because, being furnished and his
own, he was relieved of the thought and delay of selection, by coming here.

     The sun had already set, and the red reflected light of the western sky
illuminated the scene with the peculiar effect with which we are all
familiar.  The hall seemed very dark, but, getting to the back drawing-room,
whose windows command the west, I was again in the same dusky light.

     I sat down, looking out upon the richly-wooded landscape that glowed in
the grand and melancholy light which was every moment fading.  The corners
of the room were already dark; all was growing dim, and the gloom was
insensibly toning my mind, already prepared for what was sinister.  I was
waiting alone for his arrival, which soon took place.  The door
communicating with the front room opened, and the tall figure of Mr
Jennings, faintly seen in the ruddy twilight, came, with quiet stealthy
steps, into the room.

     We shook hands, and, taking a chair to the window, where there was
still light enough to enable us to see each other's faces, he sat down
beside me, and, placing his hand upon my arm, with scarcely a word of
preface began his narrative.


The faint glow of the west, the pomp of the then lonely woods of Richmond,
were before us, behind and about us the darkening room, and on the stony
face of the sufferer--for the character of his face, though still gentle and
sweet, was changed--rested that dim, odd glow which seems to descend and
produce, where it touches, lights, sudden though faint, which are lost,
almost without gradation, in darkness.  The silence, too, was utter; not a
distant wheel, or bark, or whistle from without; and within the depressing
stillness of an invalid bachelor's house.

     I guessed well the nature, though not even vaguely the particulars of
the revelations I was about to receive, from that fixed face of suffering
that, so oddly flushed, stood out, like a portrait of Schalken's, before its
background of darkness.

     "It began," he said, "on the 15th of October, three years and eleven
weeks ago, and two days--I keep very accurate count, for every day is
torment.  If I leave anywhere a chasm in my narrative tell me.

     "About four years ago I began a work which had cost me very much
thought and reading.  It was upon the religious metaphysics of the ancients."

     "I know," said I; "the actual religion of educated and thinking
paganism, quite apart from symbolic worship?  A wide and very interesting

     "Yes; but not good for the mind--the Christian mind, I mean.  Paganism
is all bound together in essential unity, and, with evil sympathy, their
religion involves their art, and both their manners, and the subject is a
degrading fascination and the Nemesis sure.  God forgive me!

     "I wrote a great deal; I wrote late at night.  I was always thinking on
the subject, walking about, wherever I was, everywhere.  It thoroughly
infected me.  You are to remember that all the material ideas connected with
it were more or less of the beautiful, the subject itself delightfully
interesting, and I, then, without a care."

     He sighed heavily.

     "I believe that every one who sets about writing in earnest does his
work, as a friend of mine phrased it, *on* something--tea, or coffee, or
tobacco.  I suppose there is a material waste that must be hourly supplied
in such occupations, or that we should grow too abstracted, and the mind, as
it were, pass out of the body, unless it were reminded often of the
connection by actual sensation.  At all events I felt the want, and I
supplied it.  Tea was my companion--at first the ordinary black tea, made in
the usual way, not too strong:  but I drank a good deal, and increased its
strength as I went on.  I never experienced an uncomfortable symptom from
it.  I began to take a little green tea.  I found the effect pleasanter, it
cleared and intensified the power of thought so.  I had come to take it
frequently, but not stronger than one might take it for pleasure.  I wrote a
great deal out here, it was so quiet, and in this room.  I used to sit up
very late, and it became a habit with me to sip my tea--green tea--every now
and then as my work proceeded.  I had a little kettle on my table, that
swung over a lamp, and made tea two or three times between eleven o'clock
and two or three in the morning, my hours of going to bed.  I used to go
into town every day.  I was not a monk, and, although I spent an hour or two
in a library hunting up authorities and looking out lights upon my theme, I
was in no morbid state as far as I can judge.  I met my friends pretty much
as usual and enjoyed their society, and, on the whole, existence had never
been, I think, so pleasant before.

     "I had met with a man who had some odd old books, German editions in
mediaeval Latin, and I was only too happy to be permitted access to them.
This obliging person's books were in the City, a very out-of-the-way part of
it.  I had rather out-stayed my intended hour, and, on coming out, seeing no
cab near, I was tempted to get into the omnibus which used to drive past
this house.  It was darker than this by the time the 'bus had reached an old
house you may have remarked, with four poplars at each side of the door, and
there the last passenger but myself got out.  We drove along rather faster.
It was twilight now.  I leaned back in my corner next the door, ruminating

     "The interior of the omnibus was nearly dark.  I had observed in the
corner opposite to me at the other side, and at the end next the horses, two
small circular reflections, as it seemed to me of a reddish light.  They
were about two inches apart, and about the size of those small brass buttons
that yachting men used to put upon their jackets.  I began to speculate, as
listless men will, upon this trifle, as it seemed.  From what centre did
that faint but deep red light come, and from what--glass beads, buttons, toy
decorations--was it reflected?  We were lumbering along gently, having
nearly a mile still to go.  I had not solved the puzzle, and it became in
another minute more odd, for these two luminous points, with a sudden jerk,
descended nearer the floor, keeping still their relative distance and
horizontal position, and then, as suddenly, they rose to the level of the
seat on which I was sitting, and I saw them no more.

     "My curiosity was now really excited, and, before I had time to think,
I saw again these two dull lamps, again together near the floor; again they
disappeared, and again in their old corner I saw them.

     "So, keeping my eyes upon them, I edged quietly up to my own side,
towards the end at which I still saw these tiny discs of red.

     "There was very little light in the 'bus.  It was nearly dark.  I
leaned forward to aid my endeavour to discover what these little circles
really were.  They shifted their position a little as I did so.  I began now
to perceive an outline of something black, and I soon saw, with tolerable
distinctness, the outline of a small black monkey, pushing its face forward
in mimicry to meet mine; those were its eyes, and I now dimly saw its teeth
grinning at me.

     "I drew back, not knowing whether it might not meditate a spring.  I
fancied that one of the passengers had forgot this ugly pet, and wishing to
ascertain something of its temper, though not caring to trust my fingers to
it, I poked my umbrella softly towards it.  It remained unmovable--up to
it--*through* it.  For through it, and back and forward it passed, without
the slightest resistance.

     "I can't, in the least, convey to you the kind of horror that I felt.
When I had ascertained that the thing was an illusion, as I then supposed,
there came a misgiving about myself and a terror that fascinated me in
impotence to remove my gaze from the eyes of the brute for some moments.  As
I looked it made a little skip back, quite into the corner, and I, in a
panic, found myself at the door, having put my head out, drawing deep
breaths of the outer air, and staring at the lights and trees we were
passing, too glad to reassure myself of reality.

     "I stopped the 'bus and got out.  I perceived the man look oddly at me
as I paid him.  I daresay there was something unusual in my looks and
manner, for I had never felt so strangely before.


"When the omnibus drove on, and I was alone on the road, I looked carefully
round to ascertain whether the monkey had followed me.  To my indescribable
relief I saw it nowhere.  I can't describe easily what a shock I had
received, and my sense of genuine gratitude on finding myself, as I
supposed, quite rid of it.

     "I had got out a little before we reached this house, two or three
hundred steps.  A brick wall runs along the footpath, and inside the wall is
a hedge of yew, or some dark evergreen of that kind, and within that again
the row of fine trees which you may have remarked as you came.

     "This brick wall is about as high as my shoulder, and happening to
raise my eyes I saw the monkey, with that stooping gait, on all fours,
walking or creeping, close beside me on top of the wall.  I stopped, looking
at it with a feeling of loathing and horror.  As I stopped so did it.  It
sat up on the wall with its long hands on its knees looking at me.  There
was not light enough to see it much more than in outline, nor was it dark
enough to bring the peculiar light of its eye into strong relief.  I still
saw, however, that red foggy light plainly enough.  It did not show its
teeth, nor exhibit any sign of irritation, but seemed jaded and sulky, and
was observing me steadily.

     "I drew back into the middle of the road.  It was an unconscious
recoil, and there I stood, still looking at it.  It did not move.

     "With an instinctive determination to try something--anything, I turned
about and walked briskly toward town, with askance look, all the time
watching the movements of the beast.  It crept swiftly along the wall, at
exactly my pace.

     "Where the wall ends, near the turn of the road, it came down, and with
a wiry spring or two brought itself close to my feet, and continued to keep
up with me as I quickened my pace.  It was at my left side, so close to my
leg that I felt every moment as if I should tread upon it.

     "The road was quite deserted and silent, and it was darker every
moment.  I stopped dismayed and bewildered, turning, as I did so, the other
way--I mean towards this house, away from which I had been walking.  When I
stood still the monkey drew back to a distance of, I suppose, about five or
six yards, and remained stationary, watching me.

     "I had been more agitated that I have said.  I had read, of course, as
everyone has, something about 'special illusions,' as you physicians term
the phenomena of such cases.  I considered my situation, and looked my
misfortune in the face.

     "These affections, I had read, are sometimes transitory and sometimes
obstinate.  I had read of cases in which the appearance, at first harmless,
had, step by step, degenerated into something direful and insupportable, and
ended by wearing its victim out.  Still, as I stood there, but for my
bestial companion quite alone, I tried to comfort myself by repeating again
and again the assurance, 'the thing is purely disease, a well-known physical
affection, as distinctly as small-pox or neuralgia.  Doctors are all agreed
on that, philosophy demonstrates it.  I must not be a fool.  I've been
sitting up too late, and I daresay my digestion is quite wrong, and, with
God's help, I shall be all right, and this is but a symptom of nervous
dyspepsia.'  Did I believe all this?  Not one word of it, no more than any
other miserable being ever did who is once seized and riveted in this
satanic captivity.  Against my convictions, I might say my knowledge, I was
simply bullying myself into a false courage.

     "I now walked homeward.  I had only a few hundred yards to go.  I had
forced myself into a sort of resignation, but I had not got over the
sickening shock and the flurry of the first certainty of my misfortune.

     "I made up my mind to pass the night at home.  The brute moved close
beside me, and I fancied there was the sort of anxious drawing toward the
house, which one sees in tired horses or dogs, sometimes, as they come
toward home.

     "I was afraid to go into town, I was afraid of any one's seeing and
recognizing me.  I was conscious of an irrepressible agitation to my manner.
Also, I was afraid of any violent change in my habits, such as going to a
place of amusement, or walking from home in order to fatigue myself.  At the
hall door it waited till I mounted the steps, and when the door was opened
entered with me.

     "I drank no tea that night.  I got cigars and some brandy and water.
My idea was that I should act upon my material system, and by living for a
while in sensation apart from thought, send myself forcibly, as it were,
into a new groove.  I came up here to this drawing-room.  I sat just here.
The monkey then got upon a small table that then stood *there*.  It looked
dazed and languid.  An irrepressible uneasiness as to its movements kept my
eyes always upon it.  Its eyes were half closed, but I could see them glow.
It was looking steadily at me.  In all situations, at all hours, it is awake
and looking at me.  That never changes.

     "I shall not continue in detail my narrative of this particular night.
I shall describe, rather, the phenomena of the first year, which never
varied essentially.  I shall describe the monkey as it appeared in daylight.
In the dark, as you shall presently hear, there are peculiarities.  It is a
small monkey, perfectly black.  It had only one peculiarity--a character of
malignity--unfathomable malignity.  During the first year it looked sullen
and sick.  But this character of intense malice and vigilance was always
underlying that surly languor.  During all that time it acted as if on a
plan of giving me as little trouble as was consistent with watching me.  Its
eyes were never off me.  I have never lost sight of it, except in my sleep,
light or dark, day or night, since it came here, excepting when it withdraws
for some weeks at a time, unaccountably.

     "In total dark it is visible as in daylight.  I do not merely its eyes.
It is *all* visible distinctly in a halo that resembles a glow of red
embers, and which accompanies it in all its movements.

     "When it leaves me for a time it is always at night, in the dark, and
in the same way.  It grows at first uneasy, and then furious, and then
advances towards me, grinning and shaking, its paws clenched, and, at the
same time, there comes the appearance of fire in the grate.  I never have
any fire.  I can't sleep in the room where there is any--and it draws nearer
and nearer to the chimney, quivering, it seems, with rage, and when its fury
rises to the highest pitch it springs into the grate, and up the chimney,
and I see it no more.

     "When first this happened I thought I was released.  I was now a new
man.  A day passed--a night--and no return, and a blessed week--a
week--another week.  I was always on my knees, Dr Hesselius, always,
thanking God and praying.  A whole month passed of liberty; but, on a
sudden, it was with me again.


"It was with me, and the malice which before was torpid under a sullen
exterior was now active.  It was perfectly unchanged in every other respect.
This new energy was apparent in its activity and its looks, and soon in
other ways.

     "For a time, you will understand, the change was shown only in an
increased vivacity, and an air of menace, as if it was always brooding over
some atrocious plan.  Its eyes, as before, were never off me."

     "Is it here now?" I asked.

     "No," he replied, "it has been absent extractly a fortnight and a
day--fifteen days.  It has sometimes been away so long as nearly two months,
once for three.  Its absence always exceeds a fortnight, although it may be
but by a single day.  Fifteen days having past since I saw it last, it may
return now at any moment."

     "Is its return," I asked, "accompanied by any peculiar manifestation?"

     "Nothing--no," he said.  "It is simply with me again.  On lifting my
eyes from a book, or turning my head, I see it, as usual, looking at me, and
then it remains, as before, for its appointed time.  I have never told so
much and so minutely before to anyone."

     I perceived that he was agitated, and looking like death, and he
repeatedly applied his handkerchief to his forehead; I suggested that he
might be tired, and told him that I would call, with pleasure, in the
morning, but he said:

     "No, if you don't mind hearing it all now.  I have got so far, and I
should prefer making one effort of it.  When I spoke to Dr Harley, I had
nothing like so much to tell.  You are a philosophic physician.  You give
spirit its proper rank.  If this thing is real----"

     He paused, looking at me with agitated inquiry.

     "We can discuss it by-and-by, and very fully.  I will give you all I
think," I answered, after an interval.

     "Well--very well.  If it is anything real, I say, it is prevailing,
little by little, and drawing me more interiorly into hell.  Optic nerves,
he talked of.  Ah! well--there are other nerves of communication.  May God
Almighty help me!  You shall hear.

     "Its power of action, I tell you, has increased.  Its malice became, in
a way, aggressive.  About two years ago, some questions that were pending
between me and the bishop having been settled, I went down to my parish in
Warwickshire, anxious to find occupation in my profession.  I was not
prepared for what happened, although I have since thought I might have
apprehended something like it.  The reason for my saying so is this----"

     He was beginning to speak with a great deal more effort and reluctance,
and sighed often, and seemed at times nearly overcome.  But at this time his
manner was not agitated.  It was more like that of a sinking patient, who
has given himself up.

     "Yes, but I will first tell you about Kenlis, my parish.

     "It was with me when I left this place for Dawlbridge.  It was my
silent travelling companion, and it remained with me at the vicarage.  When
I entered on the discharge of my duties, another change took place.  The
thing exhibited an atrocious determination to thwart me.  It was with me in
the church--in the reading-desk--in the pulpit--within the communion rails.
At last it reached this extremity, that while I was reading to the
congregation it would spring upon the open book and squat there, so that I
was unable to see the page.  This happened more than once.

     "I left Dawlbridge for a time.  I placed myself in Dr Harley's hands.
I did everything he told me.  He gave my case a great deal of thought.  It
interested him, I think.  He seemed successful.  For nearly three months I
was perfectly free from a return.  I began to think I was safe.  With his
full asset I returned to Dawlbridge.

     "I travelled in a chaise.  I was in good spirits.  I was more--I was
happy and grateful.  I was returning, as I thought, delivered from a
dreadful hallucination, to the scene of duties which I longed to enter upon.
It was a beautiful sunny evening, everything looked serene and cheerful, and
I was delighted.  I remember looking out of the window to see the spire of
my church at Kenlis among the trees, at the point where one has the earliest
view of it.  It is exactly where the little stream that bounds the parish
passes under the road by a culvert; and where it emerges at the road-side a
stone with an old inscription is placed.  As we passed this point I drew my
head in and sat down, and in the corner of the chaise was the monkey.

     "For a moment I felt faint, and then quite wild with despair and
horror.  I called to the driver, and got out, and sat down at the road-side,
and prayed to God silently for mercy.  A despairing resignation supervened.
My companion was with me as I re-entered the vicarage.  The same persecution
followed.  After a short struggle I submitted, and soon I left the place.

     "I told you," he said, "that the beast has before this become in
certain ways aggressive.  I will explain a little.  It seemed to be actuated
by intense and increasing fury whenever I said my prayers, or even meditated
prayer.  It amounted at last to a dreadful interruption.  You will ask, how
could a silent immaterial phantom effect that?  It was thus, whenever I
meditated praying; it was always before me, and nearer and nearer.

     "It used to spring on a table, on the back of a chair, on the chimney
piece, and slowly to swing itself from side to side, looking at me all the
time.  There is in its motion an indefinable power to dissipate thought, and
to contract one's attention to that monotony, till the ideas shrink, as it
were, to a point, and at last to nothing--and unless I had started up, and
shook off the catalepsy, I have felt as if my mind were on the point of
losing itself.  There are other ways," he sighed heavily; "thus, for
instance, while I pray with my eyes closed, it comes closer and closer, and
I see it.  I know it is not to be accounted for physically, but I do
actually see it, though my lids are closed, and so it rocks my mind, as it
were, and overpowers me, and I am obliged to rise from my knees.  If you had
ever yourself known this, you would be acquainted with desperation."


"I see, Dr Hesselius, that you don't lose one word of my statement.  I need
not ask you to listen specially to what I am now going to tell you.  They
talk of optic nerves, and of spectral illusions, as if the organ of sight
was the only point assailable by the influences that have fastened upon
me--I know better.  For two years in my direful case that limitation
prevailed.  But as food is taken in softly at the lips, and then brought
under the teeth, as the tip of the little finger caught in a mill crank will
draw in the hand, and the arm, and the whole body, so the miserable mortal
who has been once caught firmly by the end of the finest fibre of his nerve
is drawn in and in, by the enormous machinery of hell, until he is as I am.
Yes, Doctor, as *I* am, for while I talk to you, and implore relief, I feel
that my prayer is for the impossible, and my pleading with the inexorable."

     I endeavoured to calm his visibly increasing agitation, and told him
that he must not despair.

     While we talked the night had overtaken us.  The filmy moonlight was
wide over the scene which the window commanded, and I said:

     "Perhaps you would prefer having candles.  This light, you know, is
odd.  I should wish you, as much as possible, under your usual conditions,
while I make my diagnosis, shall I call it--otherwise I don't care."

     "All lights are the same to me," he said.  "Except when I read or
write, I care not if night were perpetual.  I am going to tell you what
happened about a year ago.  The thing began to speak to me."

     "Speak!  How do you mean--speak as a man does, do you mean?"

     "Yes; speak in words and consecutive sentences, with perfect coherence
and articulation; but there is a peculiarity.  It is not like the tone of a
human voice.  It is not by my ears it reaches me--it comes like a singing
through me head.

     "This faculty, the power of speaking to me, will be my undoing.  It
won't let me pray, it interrupts me with dreadful blasphemies.  I dare not
go on, I could not.  Oh! Doctor, can the skill, and thought, and prayers of
man avail me nothing!"

     "You must promise me, my dear sir, not to trouble yourself with
unnecessarily exciting thoughts; confine yourself strictly to the narrative
of *facts*; and recollect, above all, that even if the thing that infests
you be, as you seem to suppose, a reality with an actual independent life
and will, yet it can have no power to hurt you, unless it be given from
above:  its access to your senses depends mainly upon your physical
conditions--this is, under God, your comfort and relianace:  we are all
alike environed.  It is only that in your case, the '*paries*,' the veil of
the flesh, the screen, is a little out of repair, and sights and sounds are
transmitted.  We must enter on a new course, sir--be encouraged.  I'll give
to-night to the careful consideration of the whole case."

     "You are very good, sir; you think it worth trying, you don't give me
quite up; but, sir, you don't know, it is gaining such an influence over me:
it orders me about, it is such a tyrant, and I'm growing so helpless.  May
God deliver me!"

     "It orders you about--of course you mean by speech?"

     "Yes, yes; it is always urging me to crimes, to injure others, or
myself.  You see, Doctor, the situation is urgent, it is indeed.  When I was
in Shropshire, a few weeks ago" (Mr Jennings was speaking rapidly and
trembling now, holding my arm with one hand, and looking in my face), "I
went out one day with a party of friends for a walk:  my persecutor, I tell
you, was with me at the time.  I lagged behind the rest:  the country near
the Dee, you know, is beautiful.  Our path happened to lie near a coal mine,
and at the verge of the wood is a perpendicular shaft, they say, a hundred
and fifty feet deep.  My niece had remained behind with me--she knows, of
course, nothing of the nature of my sufferings.  She knew, however, that I
had been ill, and was low, and she remained to prevent my being quite alone.
As we loitered slowly on together, the brute that accompanied me was urging
me to throw myself down the shaft.  I tell you now--oh, sir, think of
it!--the one consideration that saved me from that hideous death was the
fear lest the shock of witnessing the occurrence should be too much for the
poor girl.  I asked her to go on and take her walk with her friends, saying
that I could go no further.  She made excuses, and the more I urged her the
firmer she became.  She looked doubtful and frightened.  I suppose there was
something in my looks or manner that alarmed her; but she would not go, and
that literally saved me.  You had no idea, sir, that a living man could be
made so abject a slave of Satan," he said, with a ghastly groan and a shudder.

     There was a pause here, and I said, "You *were* preserved nevertheless.
It was the act of God.  You are in His hands and in the power of no other
being:  be therefore confident for the future."


I made him have candles lighted, and saw the room looking cheery and
inhabited before I left him.  I told him that he must regard his illness
strictly as one dependent on physical, though *subtle* physical causes.  I
told him that he had evidence of God's care and love in the deliverance
which he had just described, and that I had perceived with pain that he
seemed to regard its peculiar features as indicating that he had been
delivered over to spiritual reprobation.  Than such a conclusion nothing
could be, I insisted, less warranted; and not only so, but more contrary to
facts, as disclosed in his mysterious deliverance from that murderous
influence during his Shropshire excursion.  First, his niece had been
retained by his side without his intending to keep her near him; and,
secondly, there had been infused into his mind an irrestible repugnance to
execute the dreadful suggestion in her presence.

     As I reasoned this point with him, Mr Jennings wept.  He seemed
comforted.  One promise I exacted, which was that should the monkey at any
time return, I should be sent for immediately; and, repeating my assurance
that I would give neither time nor thought to any other subject until I had
thoroughly investigated his case, and that to-morrow he should hear the
result, I took my leave.

     Before getting into the carriage I told the servant that his master was
far from well, and that he should make a point of frequently looking into
his room.

     My own arrangements I made with a view to being quite secure from

     I merely called at my lodgings, and with a travelling-desk and
carpet-bag set off in a hackney carriage for an inn, about two miles out of
town, called "The Horns," a very quiet and comfortable house with good thick
walls.  And there I resolved, without the possibility of intrusion or
distraction, to devote some hours of the night, in my comfortable
sitting-room, to Mr Jennings' case, and so much of the morning as it might

     [There occurs here a careful note of Dr Hesselius' opinion upon the
case, and of the habits, dietary, and medicines which he prescribed.  It is
curious--some persons would say mystical.  But, on the whole, I doubt
whether it would sufficiently interest a reader of the kind I am likely to
meet with, to warrant its being here reprinted.  The whole letter was
plainly written at the inn where he had hid himself for the occasion.  The
next letter is dated from his town lodgings.]

     I left town for the inn where I slept last night at half-past nine, and
did not arrive at my room in town until one o'clock this afternoon.  I found
a letter in Mr Jennings' hand upon my table.  It had not come by post, and,
on inquiry, I learned that Mr Jennings' servant had brought it, and, on
learning that I was not to return until to-day and that no one could tell
him my address, he seemed very uncomfortable, and said that his orders from
his master were that he was not to return without an answer.

     I opened the letter and read:

     "Dear Dr Hesselius.--It is here.  You had not been an hour gone when it
returned.  It is speaking.  It knows all that has happened.  It knows
everything--it knows you, and is frantic and atrocious.  It reviles.  I send
you this.  It knows every word I have written--I write.  This I promised,
and I therefore write, but I fear very confused, very incoherently.  I am so
interrupted, disturbed.
               Ever yours, sincerely yours,
                     Robert Lynder Jennings."

     "When did this come?" I asked.

     "About eleven last night:  the man was here again, and has been here
three times to-day.  The last time is about an hour since."

     Thus answered, and with the notes I had made upon his case in my
pocket, I was in a few minutes driving towards Richmond to see Mr Jennings.

     I by no means, as you perceive, despaired of Mr Jennings' case.  He had
himself remembered and applied, though quite in a mistaken way, the
principle which I lay down in my Metaphysical Medicine, and
which governs all such cases.  I was about to apply it in earnest.  I was
profoundly interested, and very anxious to see and examine him while the
"enemy" was actually present.

     I drove up to the somber house, and ran up the steps and knocked.  The
door, in a little time, was opened by a tall woman in black silk.  She
looked ill, and as if she had been crying.  She curtseyed, and heard my
question, but she did not answer.  She turned her face away, extending her
hand towards two men who were coming downstairs; and thus having, as it
were, tacitly made me over to them, she passed through a side-door hastily
and shut it.

     The man who was nearest the hall, I at once accosted, but being now
close to him I was shocked to see that both his hands were covered with blood.

     I drew back a little, and the man, passing downstairs, merely said in a
low tone, "Here's the servant, sir."

     The servant had stopped on the stairs, confounded and dumb at seeing
me.  He was rubbing his hands in a handkerchief, and it was steeped in blood.

     "Jones, what is it? what has happened?" I asked, while a sickening
suspicion overpowered me.

     The man asked me to come up to the lobby.  I was beside him in a
moment, and, frowning and pallid, with contracted eyes, he told me the
horror which I already half guessed.

     His master had made away with himself.

     I went upstairs with him to the room--what I saw there I won't tell
you.  He had cut his throat with his razor.  It was a frightful gash.  The
two men had laid him on the bed, and composed his limbs.  It had happened,
as the immense pool of blood on the floor declared, at some distance between
the bed and the window.  There was carpet round his bed, and a carpet under
his dressing-table, but none on the rest of the floor, for the man said he
did not like a carpet in his bedroom.  In this sombre and now terrible room,
one of the great elms that darkened the house was slowly moving the shadow
of one of its great boughs upon this dreadful floor.

     I beckoned to the servant, and we went downstairs together.  I turned
off the hall into an old-fashioned panelled room, and there standing, I
heard all the servant had to tell.  It was not a great deal.

     "I concluded, sir, from yours words, and looks, sir, as you left last
night, that you thought my master seriously ill.  I thought it might be that
you were afraid of a fit, or something.  So I attended very close to your
directions.  He sat up late, till past three o'clock.  He was not writing or
reading.  He was talking a great deal to himself, but that was nothing
unusual.  At about that hour I assisted him to undress, and left him in his
slippers and dressing-gown.  I went back softly in about half-an-hour.  He
was in his bed, quite undressed, and a pair of candles lighted on the table
beside his bed.  He was leaning on his elbow, and looking out at the other
side of the bed when I came in.  I asked him if he wanted anything, and he
said 'No.'

     "I don't know whether it was what you said to me, sir, or something a
little unusual about him, but I was uneasy, uncommon uneasy about him last

     "In another half hour, or it might be a little more, I went up again.
I did not hear him talking as before.  I opened the door a little.  The
candles were both out, which was not usual.  I had a bedroom candle, and I
let the light in, a little bit, looking softly round.  I saw him sitting in
that chair beside the dressing-table with his clothes on again.  He turned
round and looked at me.  I thought it strange he should get up and dress,
and put out the candles to sit in the dark, that way.  But I only asked him
again if I could do anything for him.  He said, 'No,' rather sharp, I
thought.  I asked if I might light the candles, and he said, 'Do as you
like, Jones.'  So I lighted them, and I lingered about the room, and he
said, 'Tell me truth, Jones; why did you come again--you did not hear anyone
cursing?'  'No, sir,' I said, wondering what he could mean.

     "'No,' said he, after me, 'of course, no'; and I said to him, 'Wouldn't
it be well, sir, you went to bed?  It's just five o'clock'; and he said
nothing but, 'Very likely; good-night, Jones.'  So I went, sir, but in less
than an hour I came again.  The door was fast, and he heard me, and called
as I thought from the bed to know what I wanted, and he desired me not to
disturb him again.  I lay down and slept for a little.  It must have been
between six and seven when I went up again.  The door was still fast, and he
made no answer, so I did not like to disturb him, and thinking he was asleep
I left him till nine.  It was his custom to ring when he wished me to come,
and I had no particular hour for calling him.  I tapped very gently, and
getting no answer I stayed away a good while, supposing he was getting some
rest then.  It was not till eleven o'clock I grew really uncomfortable aobut
him--for at the latest he was never, that I could remember, later than
half-past ten.  I got no answer.  I knocked and called, and still no answer.
So not being able to force the door, I called Thomas from the stables, and
together we forced it, and found him in the shocking way you saw."

     Jones had no more to tell.  Poor Mr Jennings was very gentle and very
kind.  All his people were fond of him.  I could see that the servant was
very much moved.

     So, dejected and agitated, I passed from that terrible house, and its
dark canopy of elms, and I hope I shall never see it more.  While I write to
you I feel like a man who has but half waked from a frightful and monotonous
dream.  My memory rejects the picture with incredulity and horror.  Yet I
know it is true.  It is the story of the process of a poison, a poison which
excites the reciprocal action of spirit and nerve, and paralyses the tissue
that separates those cognate functions of the senses, the external and the
interior.  Thus we find strange bed-fellows, and the mortal and immortal
prematurely make acquaintance.


My dear Van L----, you have suffered from an affection similar to that which
I have just described.  You twice complained of a return of it.

     Who, under God, cured you?  Your humble servant, Martin Hesselius.  Let
me rather adopt the more emphasised piety of a certain good old French
surgeon of three hundred years ago:  "I treated, and God cured you."

     Come, my friend, you are not be hippish.  Let me tell you a fact.

     I have met with, and treated, as my book shows, fifty-seven cases of
this kind of vision, which I term indifferently "sublimated," "precocious,"
and "interior."

     There is another class of affections which are truly termed--though
commonly confounded with those which I describe--spectral illusions.  These
latter I look upon as being no less simply curable than a cold in the head
or a trifling dyspepsia.

     It is those which rank in the first category that test our promptitude
of thought.  Fifty-seven such cases have I encountered, neither more nor
less.  And in how many of these have I failed?  In no one single instance.

     There is one affliction of mortality more easily and certainly
reducible, with a little patience and a rational confidence in the
physician.  With these simple conditions I look upon the cure as absolutely

     You are to remember that I had not even commenced to treat Mr Jennings'
case.  I have not any doubt that I should have cured him perfectly in
eighteen months, or possibly it might have extended to two years.  Some
cases are very rapidly curable, others extremely tedious.  Every intelligent
physician who will give thought and diligence to the task will effect a cure.

     You know my tract on The Cardinal Functions of the
Brain.  I there, by the evidence of innumerable facts, prove, as I
think, the high probability of a circulation, arterial and venous in its
mechanism, through the nerves.  Of this system, thus considered, the brain
is the heart.  The fluid, which is propagated hence through one class of
nerves, returns in an altered state through another, and the nature of that
fluid is spiritual, though not immaterial, any more than, as I before
remarked, light or electricity are so.

     By various abuses, among which the habitual use of such agents as green
tea is one, this fluid may be affected as to its quality, but it is more
frequently disturbed as to equilibrium.  This fluid being that which we have
in common with spirits, a congestion found upon the masses of brain or
nerve, connected with the interior sense, forms a surface unduly exposed, on
which disembodied spirits may operate:  communication is thus more or less
effectually established.  Between this brain circulation and the heart
circulation there is an intimate sympathy.  The seat, or rather the
instrument of exterior vision, is the eye.  The seat of interior vision is
the nervous tissue and brain, immediately about and above the eyebrow.  You
remember how effectually I dissipated your pictures by the simple
application of iced eau-de-cologne.  Few cases, however, can be treated
exactly alike with anything like rapid success.  Cold acts powerfully as a
repellant of the nervous fluid.  Long enough continued it will even produce
that permanent insensibility which we call numbness, and a little longer,
muscular as well as sensational paralysis.

     I have not, I repeat, the slightest doubt that I should have first
dimmed and ultimately sealed that inner eye which Mr Jennings has
inadvertently opened.  The same senses are opened in delerium tremens, and
entirely shut up again when the overaction of the cerebral heart, and the
prodigious nervous congestions that attend it, are terminated by a decided
change in the state of the body.  It is by acting steadily upon the body, by
a simple process, that this result is produced--and inevitably produced--I
have never yet failed.

     Poor Mr Jennings made away with himself.  But that catastrophe was the
result of a totally different malady, which, as it were, projected itself
upon that disease which was established.  His case was in the distinctive
manner a complication, and the complaint under which he really succumbed was
hereditary suicidal mania.  Poor Mr Jennings I cannot call a patient of
mine, for Ihad not even begun to treat his case, and he had not yet given
me, I am convinced, his full and unreserved confidence.  If the patient do
not array himself on the side of the disease, his cure is certain.

This etext was prepared by Eve M. Behr